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In the 900s an earth rampart for the defence of the early city was constructed, encircling the settlement, much like the defence structures found at Viking ring fortresses elsewhere.
The rampart was later reinforced by Harald Bluetooth, and together with the town's geographical placement, this suggests that Aros was an important trade and military centre.
Some Danish cities resisted the new spelling of their names, notably Aalborg and Aabenraa.
Århus city council explicitly embraced the new spelling, as it was thought to enhance an image of progressiveness.
There are strong indications of a former royal residence from the Viking Age in Viby, a few kilometres south of the Aarhus city centre.
The growing influence of the Church during the Middle Ages gradually turned Aarhus, with its bishopric, into a prosperous religious centre.
In the 19th century it was occupied twice by German troops during the Schleswig Wars but avoided destruction.
In 2017, Aarhus has been selected as European Capital of Culture along with Paphos in Cyprus.
With the Danish spelling reform of 1948, "Aa" was changed to "Å".
Many public and religious buildings were built in and around the city; notably Aarhus Cathedral was initiated in the late 12th century by the influential bishop Peder Vognsen.
In 1441, Christopher III issued the oldest known charter granting market town status although similar privileges may have existed as far back as the 12th century.
; officially spelled Århus from 1948 until 31 December 2010) is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality.